HIV-1 Tat protein, acting at the cell membrane, stimulates the production by human monocytes of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in both HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis. Here, we analyze, in primary human monocytes, the mechanisms involved in Tat-stimulated calcium mobilization and its relationship with TNF-α production. We show that the Tat protein induces a calcium signal by mobilizing calcium from extracellular stores. This calcium signal is totally blocked when cells are stimulated in the presence of DHP receptor inhibitors such as nimodipine or calcicludine, thus suggesting the implication of this L-type calcium channel. By using RT-PCR amplification, Western blot with antibodies directed against the α1D subunit, binding assays with specific agonists or antagonists, and inhibition with specific antisense oligonucleotides, we show that DHP receptors are expressed and functional in primary human monocytes. Interestingly, we demonstrate that Tat-induced calcium mobilization is tightly linked to TNF-α production, thus indicating that Tat-induced mobilization and TNF-α production are entirely mediated by DHP receptors, as shown by their total inhibition by nimodipine, calcicludine, or anti-α1D antisense oligonucleotides. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xavier, C., Yamina, B., Nathalie, C., Marc, M., Catherine, L., Jean, T., & Elmostafa, B. (2005). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein induces an intracellular calcium increase in human monocytes that requires DHP receptors: Involvement in TNF-alpha production. Virology, 332(1), 316–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2004.11.032