Background: Screening for anal dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is not standardized. High-resolution imaging is not adequate for mass screening, and anal cytology requires expertise. New biomarkers, selected because of their use in cervical cancer mass screening, have been originally tested for targeted and easy-to-perform screening. Methods: 120 HIV-infected individuals (males 96.4%, mean age 47±11 years) were referred for clinical examination, anoscopy, and cytological studies on anal swab. Dysplasia grading, Human Papilloma Virus genotyping, E6/E7mRNA detection and p16INK4A/Ki-67 immunostaining were performed. High-grade lesions were histologically confirmed by anal biopsies after high-resolution anoscopy. Results: Among the 120 anal swabs analyzed, 36 (30%) had low grade and 6 (5%) had high-grade lesions. Virus genotype was identified in 88 patients (73.3%), and 77 (64.2%) were positive for high-risk genotype(s). High-risk genotype was associated to low-grade or high-grade lesions with a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.51. For E6/E7mRNA, sensitivity and specificity for low-grade and high-grade lesions were, respectively, 0.88 and 0.78. Combination of genotyping, E6/E7mRNA and p16INK4A/Ki-67 appropriately ruled out dysplasia in 55% of patients. Conclusions: Three routine biomarkers may avoid unnecessary invasive procedures with the perspective of an improvement of patient compliance. A decision making algorithm, based on the combination of these three biomarkers, is proposed.
Dupin, C., Siproudhis, L., Henno, S., Minjolle, S., Arvieux, C., & Tattevin, P. (2015). Use of human papillomavirus genotyping and biomarkers for targeted screening of anal dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Digestive and Liver Disease, 47(5), 423–428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2015.01.150