BaTiO3 films were synthesized on TiN-coated Si substrate below 100 C by a hydrothermal-galvanic couple technique in barium contained alkaline solutions. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction results show that the BaTiO3 thin films were directionally oriented grown on the TiN/Si substrates, i.e., (111) BaTiO3 over (111) TiN. The surface morphologies revealed that BaTiO3 nucleated and grew over the TiN surface with a single layer. From kinetic analyses, the growth rates of BaTiO3 films prepared by the hydrothermal-galvanic couple technique were faster than a hydrothermal method. The galvanic effects were confirmed by investigating the induced currents and energies. The galvanic currents were generated and controlled by both the dissolution of TiN and the formation of BaTiO3. The output electric energies increased rapidly with the reaction time and leveled off at the full coverage of BaTiO3. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, C. J., Tsai, D. Y., Chan, P. H., Wu, C. T., & Lu, F. H. (2013). Hydrothermal-galvanic couple synthesis of directionally oriented BaTiO 3 thin films on TiN-coated substrates. Thin Solid Films, 542, 108–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.06.060