Hyperglycaemia, insulin therapy and critical penumbral regions for prognosis in acute stroke: Further insights from the INSULINFARCT trial

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Abstract

© 2015 Rosso et al. Recently, the concept of 'clinically relevant penumbra' was defined as an area saved by arterial recanalization and correlated with stroke outcome. This clinically relevant penumbra was located in the subcortical structures, especially the periventricular white matter. Our aims were to confirm this hypothesis, to investigate the impact of admission hyperglycemia and of insulin treatment on the severity of ischemic damages in this area and to study the respective contributions of infarct volume and ischemic damage severity of the clinically relevant penumbra on 3-month outcome. Methods We included 99 patients from the INSULINFARCT trial. Voxel-Based Analysis was carried on the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) maps obtained at day one to localize the regions, which were more damaged in patients i) with poor clinical outcomes at three months and ii) without arterial recanalization. We determined the intersection of the detected areas, which represents the clinically relevant penumbra and investigated whether hyperglycemic status and insulin regimen affected the severity of ischemic damages in this area. We performed logistic regression to examine the contribution of infarct volume or early ADC decrease in this strategic area on 3-month outcome. Conclusion These results confirm that the deep hemispheric white matter is part of the clinically relevant penumbra and show that hyperglycaemia exacerbates the apparition of irreversible ischemic damage within 24 hours in this area. However, early intensive insulin therapy fails to protect this area from infarction. Lower ADC values were found in the corona radiata in patients with poor prognosis (p< 0.0001) and in those without arterial recanalization (p< 0.0001). The tracking analysis showed that lesions in this area interrupted many important pathways. ADC values in this area were lower in hyperglycemic than in normoglycemic patients (average decrease of 41.6 ± 20.8 x10-6mm2/s) and unaffected by the insulin regimen (p: 0.10). ADC values in the clinically relevant penumbra, but not infarct volumes, were significant predictors of 3-month outcome

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Rosso, C., Pires, C., Corvol, J. C., Baronnet, F., Crozier, S., Leger, A., … Samson, Y. (2015). Hyperglycaemia, insulin therapy and critical penumbral regions for prognosis in acute stroke: Further insights from the INSULINFARCT trial. PLoS ONE, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120230

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