The long-standing belief that kaolinite is one of the most efficient natural ice nucleating agents because it provides a close lattice match to the basal plane of ice is called into question. Instead we show through an extensive series of first principles calculations that amphoterism is key to many of the interesting properties of kaolinite with regard to water adsorption and ice nucleation. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hu, X. L., & Michaelides, A. (2007). Ice formation on kaolinite: Lattice match or amphoterism? Surface Science, 601(23), 5378–5381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2007.09.012