The dinoflagellates are an extremely diverse group of algae closely related to the Apicomplexa and the ciliates. Much work has previously been undertaken to determine the presence of various biochemical pathways within dinoflagellate mitochondria. However, these studies were unable to identify several key transcripts including those encoding proteins involved in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, iron-sulphur cluster biosynthesis and protein import. Here, we analyse the draft nuclear genome of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium minutum, as well as RNAseq data to identify nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. The results confirm the presence of a complete TCA cycle in the dinoflagellates. Results also demonstrate the difficulties of using the genome sequence for the identification of genes due to the large number of introns, but show that it is highly useful for the determination of gene duplication events.
Butterfield, E. R., Howe, C. J., & Nisbet, R. E. R. (2016). Identification of sequences encoding symbiodinium minutum mitochondrial proteins. Genome Biology and Evolution, 8(2), 439–445. https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evw002