Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, devastating, and yet untreatable fibrotic disease of unknown origin. Interleukin-33 (IL-33), an IL-1 family member acts as an alarmin with pro-inflammatory properties when released after stress or cell death. Here, we investigated the role of IL-33 in the bleomycin (BLM)-induced inflammation and fibrosis model using mice IL-33 receptor [chain suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2)] mice compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Unexpectedly, 24 h post-BLM treatment ST2-deficient mice displayed augmented inflammatory cell recruitment, in particular by neutrophils, together with enhanced levels of chemokines and remodeling factors in the bronchoalveolar space and/or the lungs. At 11 days, lung remodeling and fibrosis were decreased with reduced M2 macrophages in the lung associated with M2-like cytokine profile in ST2-deficient mice, while lung cellular inflammation was decreased but with fluid retention (edema) increased. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis demonstrates a rapid development of edema detectable at day 7, which was increased in the absence of ST2. Our results demonstrate that acute neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation leads to the development of an IL-33/ST2-dependent lung fibrosis associated with the production of M2-like polarization. In addition, non-invasive MRI revealed enhanced inflammation with lung edema during the development of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in absence of ST2.
Fanny, M., Nascimento, M., Baron, L., Schricke, C., Maillet, I., Akbal, M., … Couillin, I. (2018). The IL-33 receptor ST2 regulates pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis to bleomycin. Frontiers in Immunology, 9(JUN). https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01476