Depending on their pharmacology and the ways they are used, illicit drugs can lead to a wide range of medical and surgical problems. The drug-using patient requiring surgery or pain relief needs special attention in order to avoid interactions and complications, especially as most of these patients will be using more than one drug. In order to raise awareness, we review the different drugs, their clinical effects and the problems which may be encountered. © 2006 Surgical Associates Ltd.
Hall, A. P., & Henry, J. A. (2007, October). Illicit drugs and surgery. International Journal of Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2006.06.006