The application of the Immersed Boundary IB method to simulate incompressible, turbulent flows around complex configurations is illustrated; the IB is based on the use of non-body conformal grids, and the effect of the presence of a body in the flow is accounted for by modifying the governing equations. Turbulence is modeled using standard Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes models or the more sophisticated Large Eddy Simulation approach. The main features of the IB technique are described with emphasis on the treatment of boundary condi- tions at an immersed surface. Examples of flows around a cylinder, in a wavy channel, inside a stirred tank and a piston/cylinder assembly, and around a road vehicle are presented. Com- parison with experimental data shows the accuracy of the present technique.
Iaccarino, G., & Verzicco, R. (2003). Immersed boundary technique for turbulent flow simulations. Applied Mechanics Reviews, 56(3), 331. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1563627