Immunotherapy is presently perceived as the most revolutionary therapeutic modality in cancer care. Passive immunisation, in the form of monoclonal antibodies, ushered the way for present-day immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are being tested in different cancers and in various settings. Other immunotherapies, such as vaccines and adoptive cell therapies are also being tested in oncology. Gastro-intestinal cancers represent a wide variety of tumors with specific characteristics and different responses to various therapeutic alternatives; while some are chemo-sensitive others are chemoresistant and only respond to more aggressive cytotoxic regimens, targeted therapies or a combination of both. Herein we report ongoing and published trials evaluating monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, adoptive cell therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma as well as esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal and anal cancers.
Ghosn, M., Tabchi, S., & Kourie, H. R. (2016). Immunotherapy in gastro-intestinal cancers. In Gastrointestinal Cancers: Prevention, Detection and Treatment (Vol. 1, pp. 343–356). Nova Science Publishers, Inc. https://doi.org/10.21037/jgo.2017.05.01