Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU) malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.
Wattenberg, M. M., Fong, L., Madan, R. A., & Gulley, J. L. (2016, October 1). Immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies. Current Opinion in Urology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOU.0000000000000331