This paper investigates the relationship between the economic growth and CO2 emissions in Azerbaijan. A cointegration analysis is conducted over the period 1992–2013. For getting more robust results, Johansen, ARDLBT, DOLS, FMOLS and CCR methods are employed to explore cointegration and estimate long-run coefficients. We use cubic, quadratic and linear specifications and conclude that the last one is an adequate representation for the impact of the economic growth on CO2 emissions in Azerbaijan. The results from the different cointegration methods are consistent with each other and show that the economic growth has a positive and statistically significant impact on the emissions in the long-run implying that the EKC hypothesis does not hold for Azerbaijan. The income elasticity of CO2 emissions, using different methods, is found to be between 0.7 and 0.8. Moreover, we find that any short-run imbalance can be adjusted towards the long-run equilibrium path within less than one year. The paper concludes that measures to increase energy efficiency, carbon pricing instruments in production and international-domestic trade activities, and nationwide social awareness programs to instruct about the negative consequences of pollution can be considered as relevant environmental policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions.
Mikayilov, J. I., Galeotti, M., & Hasanov, F. J. (2018). The impact of economic growth on CO2 emissions in Azerbaijan. Journal of Cleaner Production, 197, 1558–1572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.269