Type III secretion systems are molecular machines used by many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens to inject proteins, known as effectors, directly into eukaryotic host cells. These proteins manipulate host signal transduction pathways and cellular processes to the pathogen’s advantage. Salmonella enterica possesses two virulence-related type III secretion systems that deliver more than forty effectors. This paper reviews our current knowledge about the functions, biochemical activities, host targets, and impact on host cells of these effectors. First, the concerted action of effectors at the cellular level in relevant aspects of the interaction between Salmonella and its hosts is analyzed. Then, particular issues that will drive research in the field in the near future are discussed. Finally, detailed information about each individual effector is provided.
Ramos-Morales, F. (2013). Impact of Salmonella enterica Type III Secretion System Effectors on the Eukaryotic Host Cell . ISRN Cell Biology, 2012, 1–36. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/787934