To combat rising incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the city of Salvador, Brazil, the Bahia state immunization program initiated routine childhood immunization with meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MenC) in February 2010, followed by mass MenC vaccination of city residents 10-24 years of age from May through August 2010. We analyzed trends in incidence of reported cases of meningococcal disease and serogroup distribution among meningococcal isolates identified in hospital-based surveillance in Salvador from January 2000 to December 2011 and estimated vaccine effectiveness using the screening method. Annual incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease increased from 0.1 cases per 100,000 population during 2000-2006 to 2.3 in 2009 and 4.1 in 2010, before falling to 2.0 per 100,000 in 2011. Estimated coverage of mass vaccination reached 80%, 67% and 41% among 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 year olds, respectively. Incidence in 2011 was significantly lower than average rates in 2008-2009 among children <5 years, but reductions among 10-24 year olds were not significant. Among 10-24 year olds, a single dose of MenC vaccine was 100% effective (95% confidence interval, 79-100%) against serogroup C meningococcal disease. Low coverage in the population targeted for mass vaccination may have limited impact on ongoing transmission of serogroup C meningococcal disease despite high vaccine effectiveness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Cardoso, C. W., Pinto, L. L. S., Reis, M. G., Flannery, B., & Reis, J. N. (2012). Impact of vaccination during an epidemic of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil. Vaccine, 30(37), 5541–5546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.044