Background/Purpose: Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination may be associated with adverse outcomes in HIV-infected individuals who did not receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Our aim was to evaluate the impact of vaccination with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on the short-term clinical, virologic, and immunologic outcomes among HIV-infected adult patients in the HAART era. Methods: A total of 429 HIV-infected adult patients were enrolled from October 2008 to March 2010: 213 received two doses of seven-valent PCV given at a 4-week interval and 216 received one dose. All patients were given 1-week diary to record any discomfort after vaccination. Data of serial CD4 and plasma HIV RNA load measurements were recorded. Results: Of the 429 patients with a mean CD4 count of 305 cells/μL, 289 (67.4%) were receiving HAART and 175 (40.8%) had plasma HIV RNA load <40 copies/mL at vaccination. Of the 396 patients (92.3%) who returned the diary, injection site soreness (24.0%) and pain (10.4%) were the most commonly reported adverse effects. After 3-4 months of vaccination, CD4 count increased by 40 cells/μL in 278 patients (68.2%) who continued HAART, compared with a decrease of 38 cells/μL in 131 patients (31.8%) who were not on HAART (p < 0.001), while the respective change in plasma HIV RNA load was 0.8 versus 0.2 log10 copies/mL (p = 0.09). One patient died, two developed opportunistic infections, and one developed pneumococcal pneumonia following vaccination. Conclusion: Vaccination with seven-valent PCV among HIV-infected patients is generally safe, which has no detrimental effect on CD4 count and plasma HIV RNA load in patients receiving HAART. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00885628). © 2012.
Lu, C. L., Chang, S. Y., Sun, H. Y., Liu, W. C., Tseng, Y. T., Hsieh, C. Y., … Chang, S. C. (2012). Impact of vaccination with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on virologic and immunologic outcomes among HIV-infected adult patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 111(8), 445–451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2011.06.027