Ports involve construction of coastal structures such as groin, sea wall, breakwater, jetty etc. which result in modification of the shoreline and coastal geomorphology. Paradip and Dhamara are two major operational ports along Odisha coast while Gopalpur port is being developed as all weather open sea direct berthing port. The coastal structures associated with Paradip port at present are two breakwaters and northern sea wall while Dhamara port is built in an estuarine environment with one jetty. At Gopalpur Port, southern (530m) and northern (362m) groins were constructed during 2007-2009 along both sides of the previously existing piers. Other developments include intermediate (360m) and southern (1735m) breakwaters during November 2011 to December, 2012 on the south and groin field (ten groins of different dimension) on the north during September, 2011 to December, 2012. Impacts of these coastal structures are monitored every month from June, 2008 to April, 2014 by observing shoreline change, beach profile and Littoral Environment along 30km stretch on the north and south of Gopalpur port along with one year (June 2008-May 2009) wave and tide measurements by deploying tide gauge and wave rider buoy at 23m depth off Gopalpur port. Besides, seasonal observations on beach profile and shoreline near Paradip Port (August, 2010 to August, 2013) and long term (1975-2014) shoreline change study at Gopalpur, Paradip and Dhamara Port are carried out with topo-sheet data as base line information. The shoreline change rate (m/yr) in the pre and post construction phases are estimated which show distinct difference between the two phases and also on the north and south of the ports.
Mohanty, P. K., Barik, S. K., Kar, P. K., Behera, B., & Mishra, P. (2015). Impacts of ports on shoreline change along Odisha coast. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 116, pp. 647–654). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.339