Imposex in the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus): 22-year monitoring around England and Wales

Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


© 2015, The Author(s).Six imposex surveys in the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) have been conducted over the past two decades to assess legislation effectiveness controlling the use of tri-butyl tin (TBT) by the maritime shipping industry. This study firstly analysed the results of the 2014 survey and secondly carried out a trend assessment of the same 88 sampled sites between 1997 and 2014 of which 65 showed statistically significant reductions. To highlight the magnitude of change, the Vas Deferens Sequence stages (VDS) of the same 56 sites sampled in 1997 and 2010 showed that the Vas Deferens Sequence Index (VDSI) reduced statistically significantly from 2.89 and 0.42, respectively. These data confirm that the legislation enacted, latterly through the International Maritime Organization (IMO) during 2003 to 2008, has been effective in progressively reducing the impact of TBT in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the 2014 results show that two of 18 sampled sites (Gurnard Bay and St. Mawes) are still above the Ecotoxicological Assessment Criteria (EAC) derived for TBT (VDSI ≤ 2).




Nicolaus, E. E. M., & Barry, J. (2015). Imposex in the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus): 22-year monitoring around England and Wales. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(12), 1–14.

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free