Improving Case-Based Reasoning Systems by Combining K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm with Logistic Regression in the Prediction of Patients' Registration on the Renal Transplant Waiting List

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Case-based reasoning (CBR) is an emerging decision making paradigm in medical research where new cases are solved relying on previously solved similar cases. Usually, a database of solved cases is provided, and every case is described through a set of attributes (inputs) and a label (output). Extracting useful information from this database can help the CBR system providing more reliable results on the yet to be solved cases.<br /><br />OBJECTIVE: We suggest a general framework where a CBR system, viz. K-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN) algorithm, is combined with various information obtained from a Logistic Regression (LR) model, in order to improve prediction of access to the transplant waiting list.<br /><br />METHODS: LR is applied, on the case database, to assign weights to the attributes as well as the solved cases. Thus, five possible decision making systems based on K-NN and/or LR were identified: a standalone K-NN, a standalone LR and three soft K-NN algorithms that rely on the weights based on the results of the LR. The evaluation was performed under two conditions, either using predictive factors known to be related to registration, or using a combination of factors related and not related to registration.<br /><br />RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results show that our suggested approach, where the K-NN algorithm relies on both weighted attributes and cases, can efficiently deal with non relevant attributes, whereas the four other approaches suffer from this kind of noisy setups. The robustness of this approach suggests interesting perspectives for medical problem solving tools using CBR methodology.

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Campillo-Gimenez, B., Jouini, W., Bayat, S., & Cuggia, M. (2013). Improving Case-Based Reasoning Systems by Combining K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm with Logistic Regression in the Prediction of Patients’ Registration on the Renal Transplant Waiting List. PLoS ONE, 8(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071991

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