Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) as a sub class of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) provides a wireless communication among vehicles and vehicle to road side equipment . Important applications of VANET are providing safety for passengers in one hand, and also resource efficiency including traffic as well as environmental efficiency on the other hand. As a result, providing Quality of Service (QoS) has a great role in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Different methods over network layers, especially over layer 2 and layer 3 were recently proposed to support QoS in VANET . But in this paper, MPLS  as a forwarding method which can be compatible with any layer 2 technology is used in road side backbone network, to improve QoS in terms of end-to-end delay, packet loss and throughput in urban areas, where lots of roadside unit exist. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fathy, M., Firouzjaee, S. G., & Raahemifar, K. (2012). Improving QoS in VANET using MPLS. In Procedia Computer Science (Vol. 10, pp. 1018–1025). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2012.06.141