Application of ZnO nanoparticles in sunscreens exposes human skin with their adverse effects, which correlates to dissolution/translocation of free Zn+2 ions. The possibility of decreasing solubility and therefore, reducing toxicity, by structural modifications have been discussed as a solution. The present investigation has developed new metallic lattices of ZnO to reduce cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Novel metal-promoted Zn-based nanocomposites ([Zn(O)/M], M = Mg, Al, Ca, Ti) were synthesized and their physicochemical properties and their cytotoxicity were evaluated. Solubility and release studies showed that modification of ZnO structure decreases release of Zn+2 into culture medium. XRD and UV absorbance analyses showed that metallic-dopants percolate into crystalline lattice of ZnO. This phenomenon is basic reason for stability of Zn-based network. Cell culture studies and MTT assay on human skin cells (HFF-1) exposed to UVA radiation showed that the level of protection of [Zn(O)/M] compounds were more than of [ZnO]. Dichlorofluoroscein diacetate-ROS assay and Zn+2 release experiments indicated that [Zn(O)/M] nanocomposites decreased the level of ROS generation and Zn+2 release in compared to ZnO, indicating higher safety of nanocomposites. This study shows that the synthesized Zn-based nanocomposites have potential to be used as safer and more effective sunscreens than ZnO.
Ghaderi-Shekhi Abadi, P., Shirazi, F. H., Joshaghani, M., & Moghimi, H. R. (2018). Inﬂuence of formulation of ZnO nanoblokes containing metallic ions dopants on their cytotoxicity and protective factors: An in vitro study on human skin cells exposed to UVA radiation. Toxicology Reports, 5, 468–479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.03.001