© 2016 da Cunha et al.Background: Dietary factors are important environmental factors associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). The objective of this study was to assess the habitual nutrient intakes of patients with MS. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 103 patients (82 % women) with MS seen at the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes. Habitual nutrient intake data were collected at two 24-h dietary recalls. Macronutrient intake adequacies were classified according to the I Brazilian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) cut-point method after adjusting for intra- and interpersonal variances and energy. Results: The mean energy intake of the included patients was 1523.0 ± 592.2 kcal/d, higher in men (1884.0 vs. 1441.5 kcal/d in women; p = 0.003). The recommended percentage protein intake was exceeded in both women and men (18 % in women and 19 % in men). Although men consumed more fiber (18.8 vs. 13.3 g/d in women; p = 0.011), their intake was still inadequate. Women consumed more fat (47.6 vs. 41.3 g/d in men; p = 0.007). The prevalence of inadequate vitamin D and calcium intakes exceeded 80 % in both men and women and across all age groups. The same was observed for magnesium in men and women aged more than 30 years. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin E, riboflavin, and zinc intakes in men ranged from 50 to 75 %. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin B6, copper, and selenium intakes in men and women was less than 50 %. Conclusions: Patients with MS had high protein intake, low fiber intake, and high a prevalence of inadequate vitamin D, magnesium, and calcium intakes.
Da Cunha, A. T. O., Pereira, H. T., De Aquino, S. L. S., Sales, C. H., Sena-Evangelista, K. C. M., Lima, J. G., … Pedrosa, L. F. C. (2016). Inadequacies in the habitual nutrient intakes of patients with metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-016-0147-3