INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrhea continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children from developing countries. Determination of the frequency of diarrhea in an area, along with the proportion of disease caused by specific enteric agents of different origins, is considered the first step in controlling diarrheal diseases. METHODOLOGY: From 2005 to 2007, a hospital-based surveillance was conducted in two locations in Egypt to determine the causes of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5-years seeking treatment. Five additional enteric viral and parasitic pathogens were tested using commercially-available enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to re-evaluate the prevalence of diarrheal pathogens in undiagnosed cases. RESULTS: Adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus and G. lamblia were detected as the sole pathogen in 2% (n=34), 3% (n=56), 9% (n=191) and 7% (n=146) of the cases, respectively. E. histolytica was never detected as the sole pathogen. The percentage of diarrheal cases with a known cause increased significantly, from 48% (n=1,006) to 74% (n=1,568) (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In our study, the incorporation of immunoassays yielded useful data in identifying pathogens in previously pathogen-negative diarrhea cases.
El-Mohammady, H., Mansour, A., Shaheen, H. I., Henien, N. H., Motawea, M. S., Rafaat, I., … Klena, J. D. (2012). Increase in the detection rate of viral and parasitic enteric pathogens among Egyptian children with acute diarrhea. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 6(11), 774–781. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.2349