Background: Several kinds of anti-oxidants have drawn a lot of intension for their benefits on vascular protection. In addition, it has been demonstrated that exercise training could improve endothelial function by up-regulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effects of genistein, a potent phyto-antioxidant, and exercise training on age-induced endothelial dysfunction in relation to NO bioavailability using in situ NO-sensitive fluorescent dye detection. Methods: Male Wistar rats (20-22-month old) were divided into four groups: aged rats treated with corn oil, (Aged+Veh, n = 5), aged rats treated with genistein (Aged+Gen, n = 5, (0.25 mg/kg BW/day, s.c.)), aged rats with and without exercise training (Aged+Ex, n = 5, swimming 40 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks) (Aged+Without-Ex, n = 5). Cremaster arterioles (15-35 micrometer) were visualized by fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (5 microgram/ml). The vascular response to acetylcholine (Ach; 10-5M, 5 ml/5 min) was accessed after 1-min norepinephrine preconstriction (10 micro molar). To determine NO bioavailability, the Krebs-Ringer buffer with 4, 5-diaminofluorescein-diacetate (3 micro molar DAF-2DA), and 10 micro- molar Ach saturated with 95%N2and 5%CO2were used. Changes of DAF-2T-intensities along the cremaster arterioles were analyzed by the Image Pro-Plus Software (Media Cybernatics, Inc, USA). Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level was measured by thiobarbituric acid reaction and used as an indicator for oxidative stress. Results: The results showed that means arterial blood pressure for both Aged+Gen and Aged+Ex groups were significantly reduced when compared to the Aged groups, Aged+Veh and Aged+Without-Ex (P < 0.05). Among the treated groups, Ach-induced vasodilatation were significantly increased (P < 0.05) and was associated with increased NO-associated fluorescent intensities (P < 0.05). On the other hand, MDA levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when Aged+Veh was compared to Aged+Without-Ex. Conclusion: These findings showed that genistein and exercise training could improve age-induced endothelial dysfunction and is related to the increased NO bioavailability. © 2009 Eksakulkla et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Eksakulkla, S., Suksom, D., Siriviriyakul, P., & Patumraj, S. (2009). Increased NO bioavailability in aging male rats by genistein and exercise training: Using 4, 5-diaminofluorescein diacetate. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 7, 93. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-7-93