The metabolism of glutathione (GSH), a marker of oxidative stress and trehalose, a rather general physiological stress marker, was examined in exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells after treatment with 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). GSH was entirely depleted within a 2 h incubation with 250 μM HNE. After removal of the aldehyde it was replenished by de novo synthesis leading to an overshooting GSH lever, which later decreased to the basal level. In addition, trehalose was elevated 4-fold in HNE-treated yeast cells compared to control cells. We conclude that increased GSH levels upon HNE treatment are a general phenomenon of eukaryotic cells to ensure protection and survival during further harsh conditions. Furthermore, we have discovered a new indication for the stress marker trehalose in S. cerevisiae.
Wonisch, W., Hayn, M., Schaur, R. J., Tatzber, F., Kranner, I., Grill, D., … Esterbauer, H. (1997). Increased stress parameter synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae after treatment with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. FEBS Letters, 405(1), 11–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00123-3