Alloiococcus otitidis is a recently discovered pathogen of otitis media. However, only a limited number of studies are available about the pathogenic and immunological role of A. otitidis. The aim of this study was to investigate the activation and the cytokine production of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at the early immune response after stimulation with A. otitidis. After stimulation of whole human peripheral blood lymphocytes for 18 h with whole killed A. otitidis or the three major middle ear pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis), the expression of CD69 and the production of cytokines were analyzed. The expression of CD69 on T cells and B cells was dose-dependently enhanced after stimulation with A. otitidis. The release of interleukin (IL)-12 was induced after stimulation with A. otitidis, whereas the release of IL-4 was not induced after stimulation with A. otitidis. In addition, the release of interferon (IFN)-γ was induced after stimulation with A. otitidis. Although the release of IFN-γ started within 18 h after stimulation with A. otitidis, intracellular production of IFN-γ was not observed in either CD4+ T cells or CD8 + T cells within 18 h upon stimulation. The patterns of CD69 expression and T helper-type 1 (Th1)-promoting cytokines production were similarly shown when human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated with the other three major pathogens. Our results suggest that A. otitidis has sufficient immunogenic potential to modulate a host immune response, like the other three major middle ear pathogens, and also suggest that the immunogenicity of A. otitidis is very similar, at the early immune response, to that of the three major middle ear pathogens. © 2004 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harimaya, A., Himi, T., Fujii, N., Tarkkanen, J., Carlson, P., Ylikoski, J., & Mattila, P. (2005). Induction of CD69 expression and Th1 cytokines release from human peripheral blood lymphocytes after in vitro stimulation with Alloiococcus otitidis and three middle ear pathogens. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 43(3), 385–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2004.10.014