Crotonaldehyde, an alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde present in cigarette smoke, is an environmental pollutant and a product of lipid peroxidation. It also produces adverse effects to humans and is considered as a risk factor for various diseases. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays important roles in protecting cells against oxidative stress as a prime cellular defense mechanism. However, HO-1 may be associated with cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HO-1 induction on cell survival in crotonaldehyde-stimulated human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells.
Lee, S. E., Yang, H., Jeong, S. I., Jin, Y. H., Park, C. S., & Park, Y. S. (2012). Induction of heme oxygenase-1 inhibits cell death in crotonaldehyde-stimulated HepG2 cells via the PKC-δ -p38 -Nrf2 pathway. PLoS ONE, 7(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041676