BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-fermentative coccobacillus, which is widely distributed in nature. Recently, it has emerged as a major cause of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) in addition to its capacity to cause community-acquired infections. Risk factors for A. baumannii infections and bacteremia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation include: severe underlying illness such as hematological malignancy, prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, invasive instrumentation such as central venous catheters or endotracheal intubation, colonization of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or urinary tracts in addition to severe immunosuppression caused by using corticosteroids for treating graft versus host disease. The organism causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, but serious complications such as bacteremia, septic shock, ventilator-associated pneumonia, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and rapidly progressive systemic infections that ultimately lead to multi-organ failure and death are prone to occur in severely immunocompromised hosts. The organism is usually resistant to many antimicrobials including penicillins, cephalosporins, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, almost all fluoroquinolones, and most of the aminoglycosides. The recently increasing resistance to carbapenems, colistin, and polymyxins is alarming. Additionally, there are geographic variations in the resistance patterns and several globally and regionally resistant strains have already been described. Successful management of A. baumannii infections depends upon appropriate utilization of antibiotics and strict application of preventive and infection control measures. In uncomplicated infections, the use of a single active beta-lactam may be justified, while definitive treatment of complicated infections in critically ill individuals may require drug combinations such as colistin and rifampicin or colistin and carbapenem. Mortality rates in patients having bacteremia or septic shock may reach 70%. Good prognosis is associated with presence of local infection, absence of multidrug resistant strain, and presence of uncomplicated infection while poor outcome is associated with severe underlying medical illness, bacteremia, septic shock, multi-organ failure, HCAIs, admission to intensive care facilities for higher levels of care, and culture of certain aggressive genotypes of A. baumannii.
Al-Anazi, K. A., & Al-Jasser, A. M. (2014). Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Frontiers in Oncology. Frontiers Research Foundation. https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2014.00186