An increasing elephant Loxodonta africana population has been confined to a 2 770 ha enclosure since 1954. When compared to the vegetation adjacent to the enclosure, the plant biomass within has been reduced by more than one half. Changes in the botanical composition are described.
Penzhorn, B. L., Robbertse, P. J., & Olivier, M. C. (2012). The influence of the African Elephant on the vegetation of the Addo Elephant National Park. Koedoe, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v17i1.906