Background and objective The application of cytostatic oxazaphosphorines such as cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) is associated with the risk of kidney damage that, depending on the type of drug, dose and route of administration, adopts a different clinical entity and severity. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of CP and IF on the kidney histology and function in rats intraperitoneally treated with four doses of either CP or IF. Materials and methods A total of 30 rats were divided into three groups (10 in each group): group 1 (control), sham treated with saline solution, group 2 (treated with 75 mg/kg b.w. of CP), and group 3 (treated with 60 mg/kg b.w. of IF). After the treatment rats were sacrificed, blood was collected and nephrectomy and cystectomy were performed. Qualitative and quantitative parameters (including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-1, NGAL-1) of kidney function were assayed in urine and plasma. Results CP-treated rats were characterized by a significant polyuria, decreased urine pH and by decreased daily urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, urea and uric acid accompanied by increased NGAL-1 excretion. A significant decrease of the plasma uric acid concentration was also observed. IF-treated animals were also characterized by decreased urine pH but with normal daily urinary excretion of assessed substances (except for reduced uric acid excretion). Both CP and IF treated rats did not show any histopathological abnormalities in their kidneys. Conclusions CP caused more advanced kidney dysfunction and some indices suggested the development of prerenal acute kidney injury. In the CP-treated group some particularly marked urinary and plasma uric acid disturbances suggested compensation of increased oxidative stress as uric acid is considered to exert also antioxidant properties.
Dobrek, Ł., Skowron, B., Baranowska, A., Płoszaj, K., Bądziul, D., & Thor, P. (2017). The influence of oxazaphosphorine agents on kidney function in rats. Medicina (Lithuania), 53(3), 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2017.05.004