The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Bm), and the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Pp), are disease vectors to cattle and humans, respectively. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitor profile of acetylcholinesterases from Bm (BmAChE1) and Pp (PpAChE) compared to human and bovine AChE, in order to identify divergent pharmacology that might lead to selective inhibitors. Results indicate that BmAChE has low sensitivity (IC50=200μM) toward tacrine, a monovalent catalytic site inhibitor with sub micromolar blocking potency in all previous species tested. Similarly, a series of bis(n)-tacrine dimer series, bivalent inhibitors and peripheral site AChE inhibitors possess poor potency toward BmAChE. Molecular homology models suggest the rBmAChE enzyme possesses a W384F orthologous substitution near the catalytic site, where the larger tryptophan side chain obstructs the access of larger ligands to the active site, but functional analysis of this mutation suggests it only partially explains the low sensitivity to tacrine. In addition, BmAChE1 and PpAChE have low nanomolar sensitivity to some experimental carbamate anticholinesterases originally designed for control of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. One experimental compound, 2-((2-ethylbutyl)thio)phenyl methylcarbamate, possesses >300-fold selectivity for BmAChE1 and PpAChE over human AChE, and a mouse oral LD50 of >1500mg/kg, thus providing an excellent new lead for vector control. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Swale, D. R., Tong, F., Temeyer, K. B., Li, A., Lam, P. C. H., Totrov, M. M., … Bloomquist, J. R. (2013). Inhibitor profile of bis(n)-tacrines and N-methylcarbamates on acetylcholinesterase from rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and phlebotomus papatasi. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 106(3), 85–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2013.03.005