This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic-fuel cell (FC) hybrid power supply system. The system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater (HPWH) supplied thermal load. The objective is to minimize energy cost, taking into account the time-of-use electricity tariff. The problem is solved using mixed binary/real linear programming. The control variables are the supply switch to the HPWH, power from the grid, power to/from inverter, power to electrolyzerand theFC. The state variables are the hot water temperature inside the water storage tank and hydrogen in the storage tank. The results show that the heat pump consumed 45.50 kWh of energy under optimal control scenario as opposed to 84 kWh when using a thermostat based controller. The proposed control strategy performance is tested by simulating different operating scenarios with results confirming its effectiveness in increasing the supply reliability of the system.
Sichilalu, S. M., Tazvinga, H., & Xia, X. (2016). Integrated Energy Management of Grid-tied-PV-fuel Cell Hybrid System. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 103, pp. 111–116). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.11.258