The present study approaches opportunities in international entrepreneurship from a systemic perspective. Based on research on the collectiveness of opportunities in international entrepreneurship and the concepts of activity and object from activity theory, we develop a systemic conceptualization of opportunity-oriented international entrepreneurship. Through an empirical study in Finland and Israel, we depict six collective opportunity beliefs, considered from the viewpoints of society, international venture, and outcome expectations. Furthermore, we induce three modalities for international opportunity as the object of collective activity and model systemic opportunity shaping as the core activity of international entrepreneurship.
Mainela, T., Puhakka, V., & Sipola, S. (2018). International entrepreneurship beyond individuals and firms: On the systemic nature of international opportunities. Journal of Business Venturing, 33(4), 534–550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2018.04.002