Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), a fundamentally important homeostatic and Ca2+ signaling pathway in many types of cells, is activated by the direct interaction of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ -binding protein, with Ca2+ -selective Orai1 channels localized in the plasma membrane. While much is known about the regulation of SOCE by STIM1, the role of stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2) in SOCE remains incompletely understood. Here, using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats -CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) genomic editing and molecular imaging, we investigated the function of STIM2 in NIH 3T3 fibroblast and αT3 cell SOCE. We found that deletion of Stim2 expression reduced SOCE by more than 90% in NIH 3T3 cells. STIM1 expression levels were unaffected in the Stim2 null cells. However, quantitative confocal fluorescence imaging demonstrated that in the absence of Stim2 expression, STIM1 did not translocate or form punctae in plasma membrane-associated ER membrane (PAM) junctions following ER Ca2+ store depletion. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of intact, living cells revealed that the formation of STIM1 and Orai1 complexes in PAM nanodomains was significantly reduced in the Stim2 knockout cells. Our findings indicate that STIM2 plays an essential role in regulating SOCE in NIH 3T3 and αT3 cells and suggests that dynamic interplay between STIM1 and STIM2 induced by ER Ca2+ store discharge is necessary for STIM1 translocation, its interaction with Orai1, and activation of SOCE.
Nelson, H. A., Leech, C. A., Kopp, R. F., & Roe, M. W. (2018). Interplay between ER Ca2+ binding proteins, STIM1 and STIM2, is required for store-operated Ca2+ entry. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051522