The ability of color Doppler flow mapping to provide intraoperative information about mitral regurgitation (MR) severity and to evaluate adequacy of mitral valve repair was assessed by performing color Doppler echocardiography immediately before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, with the transducer placed directly on the epicardium. In 56 patients, the degree of MR by intraoperative color Doppler correlated well with left ventricular angiography (kappa = 0.80) and with closed-chest preoperative color Doppler (kappa = 0.84) and had good inter-observer reproducibility (kappa = 0.88). Good correlation was also seen between closed-chest color Doppler and angiography (kappa = 0.75). After mitral valve repair in 18 patients (15 ischemic MR, 3 cleft valves), color Doppler was used to assess severity of residual MR intraoperatively and postoperatively. Intraoperative color Doppler identified satisfactory repair (MR ≤ 2+) in 15 patients and failure (MR ≥ 3+) in 3, whereas conventional surgical assessment of MR by fluid filling of the arrested ventricle failed to provide reliable differentiation. MR severity on subsequent closed-chest color Doppler follow-up did not change significantly compared with intraoperative evaluation after repair. Intraoperative color Doppler provides accurate grading of MR severity, offers instantaneous evaluation of the adequacy of mitral valve repair before chest closure, and appears to predict the degree of postoperative MR seen on subsequent closed-chest follow-up studies. © 1987.
Maurer, G., Czer, L. S. C., Chaux, A., Bolger, A. F., DeRobertis, M., Resser, K., … Matloff, J. M. (1987). Intraoperative Doppler color flow mapping for assessment of valve repair for mitral regurgitation. The American Journal of Cardiology, 60(4), 333–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(87)90237-2