High-tech products as well as renewable energy systems require ever-increasing quantities and more different metals. The extraction of metals and industrial minerals for the production of consumer goods and machines take place almost exclusively on land now. However, the interest in marine mineral resources has been re-inflamed due to the problem of geopolitical availability, such as fragile or failed raw material states and oligopolistic structures among the producers. This article gives a brief outline of the political, social and economic context of this change in interest in marine mineral raw materials extraction.
Kaluza, A., Lindow, K., & Stark, R. (2018). Investigating challenges of a sustainable use of marine mineral resources. In Procedia Manufacturing (Vol. 21, pp. 321–328). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.127