The aim of this investigation is to analyze the effects of hand on planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) electromagnetic (EM) absorption and performances. The EM absorption is evaluated by using two parameters: the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head and total absorbed power by the user. The antenna performance parameters comprising return loss, radiation efficiency, and gain are considered in this investigation. The analysis was performed using mobile phone with a human head and hand model in both cheek and tilt positions of talk mode. The results show that the inclusion of hand model leads to decrease the SAR and increase the total absorbed power by user remarkably. The hand phantom leads maximum 27.2% SAR reduction in both cheek and tilt positions of talk mode. Moreover, the hand phantom contributed to increase the total power absorption more than two times in both cheek and tilt positions. The user's hand also leads to degrade antenna performances considerably. Moreover, the presented analysis provides some useful indication to design handset antenna considering hand effects.
Hossain, M. I., Faruque, M. R. I., & Islam, M. T. (2015). Investigation of hand impact on PIFA performances and SAR in human head. Journal of Applied Research and Technology, 13(4), 447–453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jart.2015.09.001