Congestive heart failure (CHF) has become a major medical problem in the western world with high morbidity and mortality rates. CHF adversely affects several systems, mainly the kidneys and the lungs. While the involvement of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic nervous system in the progression of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal dysfunction in experimental and clinical CHF is well established, the importance of pro-inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of this clinical setting is still evolving. In this context, CHF is associated with overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6, which are activated in response to environmental injury. This family of cytokines has been implicated in the deterioration of CHF, where it plays an important role in initiating and integrating homeostatic responses both at the myocardium and circulatory levels. We and others showed that angiotensin II decreased the ability of the lungs to clear edema and enhanced the fibrosis process via phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and p42/44, which are generally involved in cellular responses to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Literature data also indicate the involvement of these effectors in modulating ion channel activity. It has been reported that in heart failure due to mitral stenosis; there were varying degrees of vascular and other associated parenchymal changes such as edema and fibrosis. In this review, we will discuss the effects of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators on the kidneys and the lungs in heart failure; especially their role in renal and alveolar ion channels activity and fluid balance.<br/>Copyright © 2017 Azzam, Kinaneh, Bahouth, Ismael-Badarneh, Khoury and Abassi.
Z.S., A., S., K., F., B., R., I.-B., E., K., Z., A., … Abassi, Z. (2017). Involvement of cytokines in the pathogenesis of salt and water imbalance in congestive heart failure. Frontiers in Immunology, 8. Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/search?query=(DOI:"10.3389/fimmu.2017.00716")