n our previous study, we have shown that canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II) activates both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a canine fibrosarcoma cell line (A-72 cells). Herein we investigated the role of Sirtuin and Forkhead box O (FOXO) families in this experimental model using Nortern Blot and Western Blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that mitochondrial SIRT3 and SIRT4 protein expression increased from 12 and 24 h post infection (p.i.) onwards, respectively, whereas the nuclear SIRT1 expression increased during the first 12 h p.i. followed by a decrease after 36 h p.i., reaching the same level of control at 48 h p.i. Sirtuins interact with/and regulate the activity of FOXO family proteins, and we herein observed that FOXO3A and FOXO1 expression increased significantly and stably from 12 h p.i. onwards. In addition, CCoV-II induces a remarkable increase in the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), while we observed a slight up-regulation of FasL/Fas at 36 p.i. with a decrease of both proteins at the end of infection. Furthermore, we found that virus infection increased both bax translocation into mitochondria and decreased bcl-2 expression in cytosol in a time-dependent manner. These data suggest that FOXO transcription factors mediate pro-apoptotic effects of CCoV-II, in part due to activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway, while some Sirtuin family members (such as SIRT3 and SIRT4) may be involved in intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these results propose that TRAIL is an important mediator of cell death induced by CCoV-II during in vitro infection. © 2011 Marfè et al.
Marfè, G., Tafani, M., Fiorito, F., Pagnini, U., Iovane, G., & de Martino, L. (2011). Involvement of FOXO transcription factors, TRAIL-FasL/Fas, and Sirtuin proteins family in canine coronavirus type II-induced apoptosis. PLoS ONE, 6(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027313