Soil bacteria1 called rhizobia are gram-negative capable to colonize the soil immediately surrounding roots under the influence of the plant “rhizosphere” and reduce atmospheric nitrogen into the form available to plants through nitrogen fixation process. Nitrogen is the most limiting and supplied nutrient to most plants, and the determinant of plant growth. Legumes differ with most plants because they have access to nitrogen from both mineral and symbiotic sources. Small-scale farmers who are the major legume producers in Africa rarely apply fertilizers during legume production. Hence, the crop is largely dependent on fixed nitrogen from native nitrogen fixers. Isolation of rhizobia for legume production has been given a little attention in Africa due to inadequate research or negligence of researchers and unawareness of its potential in legume production as well as lack of an intention from skilled personnel to popularize the technology. Evaluation of effectiveness of isolated rhizobia is essential for inoculants preparation, host specificity recommendation and symbiotic effectiveness. The isolation, determination of their population in the soil and assessing factors affecting their population and testing the effectiveness of native nitrogen fixers with respect to right trap host crop are given a special attention in this review.
Simon, Z., Mtei, K., Gessesse, A., & Ndakidemi, P. A. (2014). Isolation and Characterization of Nitrogen Fixing Rhizobia from Cultivated and Uncultivated Soils of Northern Tanzania. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 05(26), 4050–4067. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.526423