In this work, we explore finite-dimensional linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems by restricting the Koopman operator to an invariant subspace. The Koopman operator is an infinite-dimensional linear operator that evolves observable functions of the state-space of a dynamical system [Koopman 1931, PNAS]. Dominant terms in the Koopman expansion are typically computed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). DMD uses linear measurements of the state variables, and it has recently been shown that this may be too restrictive for nonlinear systems [Williams et al. 2015, JNLS]. Choosing nonlinear observable functions to form an invariant subspace where it is possible to obtain linear models, especially those that are useful for control, is an open challenge. Here, we investigate the choice of observable functions for Koopman analysis that enable the use of optimal linear control techniques on nonlinear problems. First, to include a cost on the state of the system, as in linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control, it is helpful to include these states in the observable subspace, as in DMD. However, we find that this is only possible when there is a single isolated fixed point, as systems with multiple fixed points or more complicated attractors are not globally topologically conjugate to a finite-dimensional linear system, and cannot be represented by a finite-dimensional linear Koopman subspace that includes the state. We then present a data-driven strategy to identify relevant observable functions for Koopman analysis using a new algorithm to determine terms in a dynamical system by sparse regression of the data in a nonlinear function space [Brunton et al. 2015, arxiv]; we show how this algorithm is related to DMD. Finally, we demonstrate how to design optimal control laws for nonlinear systems using techniques from linear optimal control on Koopman invariant subspaces.
Brunton, S. L., Brunton, B. W., Proctor, J. L., & Kutz, J. N. (2016). Koopman invariant subspaces and finite linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems for control. PLoS ONE, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150171