La práctica enfermera en atención domiciliaria: Perfil sociodemográfico y práctica profesional

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To characterise the Andalusian nurses providing home care (HC), to describe the activities developed, to define the components of nursing practice and to identify differences between the care of terminal cancer, of AIDS patients, of elderly people with dementia and of patients who had undergone more serious out-patient surgery. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study using a postal questionnaire. SETTING: Primary care centres in Andalusia. PARTICIPANTS: 348 PC nurses working in home care. Multi-stage sampling, proportional by provinces. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Social-demographic and work characteristics, nursing activity in the home, type and frequency of activities performed in the care of each kind of patient and use of protocols. RESULTS: 61.14% reply rate. 65.5% were women, with mean age of 39.7 and averaging 10 years of PC experience. Mean number of patients attended was 10.5 per week, and mean time was 20.7 minutes. 90.1% had attended cancer patients, 16.7% AIDS patients, 83.3% elderly people with dementia, and 87.2% patients discharged early. In all cases the most commonly developed item was the technical one, followed by preventive/health promotion and psycho-social. Except in the case of evaluation of physiological needs, in all the other activities the frequency of the item was in function of the pathology of the patient (P<.05). Nursing practice in the home of terminal cancer patients and of elderly people with dementia only differs in the handling of emotional problems in both patient and carer, and in the preventive item (P<.05). 60% of the sample said they used no protocol in home care. CONCLUSIONS: The most common activities in care of home care patients are giving treatment, dressings, bandages, and monitoring of the vital constants, followed by assessment of physiological needs. Nursing practice does not seem to be fully conditioned by the pathology, but rather in function of groups of patients with similar needs and problems. Most Andalusian home-care nurses use no protocol in caring for these four classes of patient.

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Frías Osuna, A., Prieto Rodríguez, M. A., Heierle Valero, C., Aceijas Hernández, C., Calzada Gómez, M. L., Alcalde Palacios, A., … Sandino Dabán, L. (2002). La práctica enfermera en atención domiciliaria: Perfil sociodemográfico y práctica profesional. Atencion Primaria / Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria, 29(8), 495–501. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0212-6567(02)70619-7

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