Knowledge of particle deposition in turbulent flows is often required in engineering situations. Examples include fouling of turbine blades, plate-out in nuclear reactors and soot deposition. Thus it is important for numerical simulations to be able to predict particle deposition. Particle deposition is often principally determined by the forces acting on the particles in the boundary layer. The particle tracking facility in the CFD code uses the eddy lifetime model to simulate turbulent particle dispersion, no specific boundary layer being modelled. The particle tracking code has been modified to include a boundary layer. The non-dimensional yplus, y+, distance of the particle from the wall is determined and then values for the fluid velocity, fluctuating fluid velocity and eddy lifetime appropriate for a turbulent boundary layer used. Predictions including the boundary layer have been compared against experimental data for particle deposition in turbulent pipe flow. The results giving much better agreement. Many engineering problems also involve heat transfer and hence temperature gradients. Thermophoresis is a phenomena by which small particles experience a force in the opposite direction to the temperature gradient. Thus particles will tend to deposit on cold walls and be repulsed by hot walls. The effect of thermophoresis on the deposition of particles can be significant. The modifications of the particle tracking facility have been extended to include the effect of thermophoresis. A preliminary test case involving the deposition of particles in a heated pipe has been simulated. Comparison with experimental data from an extensive experimental programme undertaken at ISPRA, known as STORM (Simplified Tests on Resuspension Mechanisms), has been made.
Greenfield, C., & Quarini, G. (1998). A lagrangian simulation of particle deposition in a turbulent boundary layer in the presence of thermophoresis. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 22(10), 759–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0307-904X(98)10024-0