Mixed mating, where a single tree progeny results from a mixture of selfing and outcrossing, is widespread in conifers and could be an evolutionary advantage at ecological margins when mating partners become scarce. This study analyzes how the mating system responds to bioclimate and density variations. We surveyed published data on the mating system of Abies, Picea and Pinus species when information on bioclimate and stand density was available. Our survey revealed that Mediterranean species demonstrate a lower selfing rate than other species and that the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny is not fixed within species. The highest variability in mating types within populations was found when stand density was the most variable. To show how density affects the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny, we used isozymes to genotype single tree seeds from a marginal Abies alba forest in Mediterranean France (Mont Ventoux) where low-to high-density stands are found. We then tested the adaptive potential of the different high and low density progenies by sowing them under controlled nursery conditions and measuring germination rate and seedling survival after 4 years under 3 different water regimes. Although the mean value of outcrossing rate was typical for mixed mating conifers (tm = 0.85), individual outcrossing rates varied from 0.05 to 0.99 and were strongly correlated with stand type and density (tm from 0.87 in high-density to 0.43 in low-density marginal stands). Significantly fewer seeds from the low density marginal stand germinated (32% vs 53% in the high density mature stand), although seedlings from the marginal stand had a better 4-year survival (81%) than seedlings from the high-density mature stand (63%) when the three water regimes (from least to most stressful) were averaged. Trees from low density stands may be at a selective disadvantage because they produce more selfed progeny than trees from high-density stands. However, selfed seeds may be purged early on (at the embryo stage) and the remaining seeds tend to produce seedlings with better fitness. Variability of the selfing rate might thus be an adaptive strategy for species in highly contrasted environments where selection of both reproductive assurance and avoidance of inbreeding depression may be density dependent.
Restoux, G., Silva, D. E., Sagnard, F., Torre, F., Klein, E., & Fady, B. (2008). Life at the margin: The mating system of Mediterranean conifers. Web Ecology, 8, 94–102. https://doi.org/10.5194/we-8-94-2008