The relaxation of a lecithin suspension after sonication is studied by electron microscopy. It is shown that vesicles are formed in a two-stage process: Fragmentation into open sheets of bilayer under the action of sound and subsequent spontaneous closure of the planar disks into closed shells. A prerequisite of the discovery is a slowing down of the relaxation process by the addition of a moderate amount of cholate as an 'edge-actant'. © 1985.
Fromherz, P., & Ruppel, D. (1985). Lipid vesicle formation: the transition from open disks to closed shells. FEBS Letters, 179(1), 155–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(85)80211-8