Background: Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of progressive HIV infection and a key determinant of immunodeficiency in HIV-infected individuals. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the circulation has been implicated as a key factor in HIV infection-related systemic immune activation. We thus investigate the impact of LPS on systemic immune activation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. Methods: The animals were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239. The levels of plasma viral load and host inflammatory cytokines in PBMC were measured by real-time RT-PCR. CD4/CD8 ratio and systemic immune activation markers were examined by flow cytometric analysis of PBMCs. White blood cell and neutrophil counts and C Reactive Protein levels were determined using biochemistry analyzer. The plasma levels of LPS were determined by Tachypleus Amebocyte Lysate (TAL) test. Results: The animals inoculated with SIVmac239 became infected as evidenced by the increased plasma levels of SIV RNA and decreased CD4/CD8 ratio. LPS administration of SIV-infected animals induced a transient increase of plasma SIV RNA and immune activation, which was indicated by the elevated expression of the inflammatory cytokines and CD4+HLA-DR+ T cells in PBMCs. Conclusions: These data support the concept that LPS is a driving factor in systemic immune activation of HIV disease. © 2014 Bao et al.
Bao, R., Zhuang, K., Liu, J., Wu, J., Li, J., Wang, X., & Ho, W. Z. (2014). Lipopolysaccharide induces immune activation and SIV replication in rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. PLoS ONE, 9(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098636