Long-term endothelial dysfunction after coronary artery stenting

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the endothelial-dependent vasomotor function in nonrestenotic coronary arteries more than six months following stent implantation, balloon angioplasty (BA), and directional atherectomy (DCA). BACKGROUND: Catheter-based coronary interventions are associated with extensive arterial injury. Endothelial function has been shown to remain chronically abnormal after vascular injury. The long-term effects of different percutaneous coronary interventions on endothelial function are not known. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients treated at least six months earlier with a coronary intervention for isolated proximal left anterior descending (LAD) stenosis, with no evidence of restenosis, were studied. Twelve patients had been stented, 15 had been treated with BA, and 12 had undergone DCA. Changes in diameter of the intervened LAD, and the unintervened circumflex coronary artery (Cx), in response to intracoronary acetylcholine infusions were assessed by quantitative angiography. RESULTS: The groups had similar angiographic characteristics and risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. The LAD constricted significantly more (p = 0.02) in previously stented patients (-21.8 ± 4.3%), as compared to patients previously treated with BA (-9.5 ± 2.8%) or with DCA (-9.1 ± 3.6%). In contrast, acetylcholine infusion resulted in mild constriction in the Cx, which was similar in the three groups (p = 0.47). By multiple regression analysis, previous implant of a stent was the only significant predictor of LAD constriction (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: More severe endothelial dysfunction was observed long term after stenting as compared to BA or DCA. These findings may have implications with respect to the progression of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries subjected to percutaneous interventions.

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Caramori, P. R. A., Lima, V. C., Seidelin, P. H., Newton, G. E., Parker, J. D., & Adelman, A. G. (1999). Long-term endothelial dysfunction after coronary artery stenting. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 34(6), 1675–1679. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(99)00411-8

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