Lysophosphatidic acid enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells

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Abstract

Clinical evidence suggests that lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis are important processes during the progression of prostate cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C was shown to be a key regulator in these processes. Our previous studies demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a low-molecular-weight lipid growth factor, enhances VEGF-C expression in human endothelial cells. We previously demonstrated that the LPA receptor plays an important role in lymphatic development in zebrafish embryos. However, the effects of LPA on VEGF-C expression in prostate cancer are not known. Herein, we demonstrate that LPA up-regulated VEGF-C expression in three different human prostate cancer cell lines. In PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, the enhancing effects of LPA were mediated through both LPA1 and LPA3. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) expression were involved in LPA(1/3)-dependent VEGF-C expression. Furthermore, autotaxin (ATX), an enzyme responsible for LPA synthesis, also participates in regulating VEGF-C expression. By interrupting LPA(1/3) of PC-3, conditioned medium (CM) -induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) lymphatic markers expression was also blocked. In summary, we found that LPA enhances VEGF-C expression through activating LPA(1/3)-, ROS-, and LEDGF-dependent pathways. These novel findings could potentially shed light on developing new strategies for preventing lymphatic metastasis of prostate cancer.

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Lin, C. E., Chen, S. U., Lin, C. C., Chang, C. H., Lin, Y. C., Tai, Y. L., … Lee, H. (2012). Lysophosphatidic acid enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. PLoS ONE, 7(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041096

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