Clinical evidence suggests that lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis are important processes during the progression of prostate cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C was shown to be a key regulator in these processes. Our previous studies demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a low-molecular-weight lipid growth factor, enhances VEGF-C expression in human endothelial cells. We previously demonstrated that the LPA receptor plays an important role in lymphatic development in zebrafish embryos. However, the effects of LPA on VEGF-C expression in prostate cancer are not known. Herein, we demonstrate that LPA up-regulated VEGF-C expression in three different human prostate cancer cell lines. In PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, the enhancing effects of LPA were mediated through both LPA1 and LPA3. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) expression were involved in LPA(1/3)-dependent VEGF-C expression. Furthermore, autotaxin (ATX), an enzyme responsible for LPA synthesis, also participates in regulating VEGF-C expression. By interrupting LPA(1/3) of PC-3, conditioned medium (CM) -induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) lymphatic markers expression was also blocked. In summary, we found that LPA enhances VEGF-C expression through activating LPA(1/3)-, ROS-, and LEDGF-dependent pathways. These novel findings could potentially shed light on developing new strategies for preventing lymphatic metastasis of prostate cancer.
Lin, C. E., Chen, S. U., Lin, C. C., Chang, C. H., Lin, Y. C., Tai, Y. L., … Lee, H. (2012). Lysophosphatidic acid enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. PLoS ONE, 7(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041096