© 2015 Efsen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Objectives: Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE).We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients in EE, Western Europe (WE) and Latin America (LA). Design and Methods: Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE), and LA) were enrolled. Results: Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844), WE (N = 152), SE (N = 164), and LA (N = 253) in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p < 0.0001), MDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p < 0.0001), and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p < 0.0001). Injecting drug use (adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.03 (95% CI 1.00-4.09), prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88-6.22)), and living in EE (7.19 (3.28-15.78)) were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST) results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results) anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66% of participants in EE compared with 90-96% in other regions (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In EE, TB/HIV patients were less likely to receive a definite TB diagnosis, more likely to house MDR-TB and commonly received empiric anti-TB treatment with reduced activity. Improved management of TB/HIV patients in EE requires better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART.
Efsen, A. M. W., Schultze, A., Post, F. A., Panteleev, A., Furrer, H., Miller, R. F., … Kirk, O. (2015). Major challenges in clinical management of TB/HIV coinfected patients in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe and Latin America. PLoS ONE, 10(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145380