Maladaptive remodeling is associated with impaired survival in women but not in men after aortic valve replacement

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Abstract

Objectives The purpose of this study was to test whether adaptive or maladaptive remodeling is associated with survival in women and men after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Background Women with isolated aortic valve stenosis (AS) develop more concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) than men in similar disease states. We recently reported less up-regulation of profibrotic genes at AVR and faster LVH regression post-operatively in women than in men, suggesting that there are sex differences in the adaptation to pressure overload and its regression. Methods The study cohort included 128 patients (age 70.0 ± 9.6 years, 49%women) undergoing AVR for AS. Echocardiography was obtained before and 4.0 ± 1.6 years after surgery. Factor analysis was used to classify LVH as adaptive (combiningsmaller left ventricular [LV]mass/diameters andgreater relativewall thicknesses) ormaladaptive.Myocardial tissue samples from the LV septum were obtained during AVR to analyze cardiac fibrosis and associated key molecular regulators. Results Before AVR, LVH was classified as adaptive in 62% of women and 45% of men (p < 0.050). Four years after AVR, adaptive LVH was observed in 75% of women and 49% of men (p < 0.031). At surgery, more cardiac fibrosis was present in men compared with women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (p < 0.01), SMAD2 phosphorylation (p < 0.001), and periostin expression (p < 0.05) were found in men than in women. Women with maladaptive LVH had worse survival than women with adaptive LVH (p < 0.050), whereas the pattern of LVH did not affect survival in men (p < 0.307). Conclusions Women more frequently exhibit adaptive LV remodeling with less fibrosis than men. Maladaptive LVH is associated with worse survival in women. Thus, sex should be considered as a strong modulating factor when management of patients with AS is discussed. (J Am Coll Cardiol Img 2014;7:1073-80)

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Petrov, G., Dworatzek, E., Schulze, T. M., Dandel, M., Kararigas, G., Mahmoodzadeh, S., … Regitz-Zagrosek, V. (2014). Maladaptive remodeling is associated with impaired survival in women but not in men after aortic valve replacement. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 7(11), 1073–1080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2014.06.017

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