In 2012, brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) with large, raised, black growths were first reported from multiple areas within the Vermont portion of Lake Memphremagog. Subsequent surveys conducted from 2014 to 2017 at two sites within the lake indicated a prevalence of 30% in adult brown bullhead 200 mm and above total length. These lesions ranged from slightly raised smooth black areas to large nodular areas on the body surface and fins and within the oral cavity. Microscopically, these lesions were determined to be malignant melanoma with invasion into surrounding hypodermis, skeletal muscle and bone as well as metastases to gill, ovary and intestine. Liver neoplasms were also observed in 8% of the bullhead collected from Lake Memphremagog in 2015. Neither skin nor liver neoplasms were noted in Ticklenaked Pond, a site used for comparison.
Blazer, V. S., Shaw, C. H., Smith, C. R., Emerson, P., & Jones, T. (2020). Malignant melanoma of brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Lake Memphremagog, Vermont/Quebec. Journal of Fish Diseases, 43(1), 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13112